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Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2018;71:351-6 - Vol. 71 Num.05 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2017.07.010

Single Nucleotide Variants Associated With Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia in Families Diagnosed Clinically With Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Itziar Lamiquiz-Moneo a,, María Rosario Pérez-Ruiz a, Estíbaliz Jarauta a, María Teresa Tejedor b, Ana M. Bea a, Rocío Mateo-Gallego a, Sofía Pérez-Calahorra a, Lucía Baila-Rueda a, Victoria Marco-Benedí a, Isabel de Castro-Orós a, Ana Cenarro a, Fernando Civeira a

a Unidad Clínica y de Investigación en Lípidos y Arteriosclerosis, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), CIBERCV, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
b Departamento de Anatomía, Embriología y Genética, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

Keywords

Familial hypercholesterolemia. Single nucleotide variants. Polygenic hypercholesterolemia.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

Approximately 20% to 40% of clinically defined familial hypercholesterolemia cases do not show a causative mutation in candidate genes, and some of them may have a polygenic origin. A cholesterol gene risk score for the diagnosis of polygenic hypercholesterolemia has been demonstrated to be valuable to differentiate polygenic and monogenic hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of the single nucleotide variants associated with polygenic hypercholesterolemia in probands with genetic hypercholesterolemia without mutations in candidate genes (nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia genetic hypercholesterolemia) and the genetic score in cascade screening in their family members.

Methods

We recruited 49 nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia genetic hypercholesterolemia families (294 participants) and calculated cholesterol gene scores, derived from single nucleotide variants in SORT1, APOB, ABCG8, APOE and LDLR and lipoprotein(a) plasma concentration.

Results

Risk alleles in SORT1, ABCG8, APOE, and LDLR showed a statistically significantly higher frequency in blood relatives than in the 1000 Genomes Project. However, there were no differences between affected and nonaffected members. The contribution of the cholesterol gene score to LDL-C was significantly higher in affected than in nonaffected participants (P = .048). The percentage of the LDL-C variation explained by the score was 3.1%, and this percentage increased to 6.9% in those families with the highest genetic score in the proband.

Conclusions

Nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia genetic hypercholesterolemia families concentrate risk alleles for high LDL-C. Their contribution varies greatly among families, indicating the complexity and heterogeneity of these forms of hypercholesterolemias. The gene score explains a small percentage of LDL-C, which limits its use in diagnosis.

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1885-5857/© 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved