Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2013;66:728-33 - Vol. 66 Num.09 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2013.05.002

Epidemiology of Infective Endocarditis in Spain in the Last 20 Years

Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo a, Pilar Tornos Mas b,

a Servei de Malalties Infeccioses, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
b Servei de Cardiologia, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Keywords

Endocarditis. Epidemiology. Risk factors. Prognosis.

Abstract

Infective endocarditis is an uncommon disease, with an estimated incidence of 3.1 to 3.7 episodes per 100 000 inhabitants/year. The incidence is highest in elderly people. The microorganisms most frequently isolated in infective endocarditis are staphylococci and streptococci. In the last few decades, the spectrum of heart diseases predisposing to infective endocarditis has changed, since degenerative heart disease is the most common valve disease, and there are an increasing number of infective endocarditis patients without previously known valve disease. In addition, up to one-third of infective endocarditis patients become infected through contact with the health system. These patients are more frail, which leads to higher in-hospital mortality. As a result of substantial epidemiological changes, few cases of infective endocarditis can be prevented by antibiotic prophylaxis. Despite advances in medical and surgical treatment, in-hospital mortality among infective endocarditis patients is high. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement in reducing the rate of nosocomial bacteremia, the prompt diagnosis of infective endocarditis in at-risk patients, and the early identification of patients with a highest risk of complications, as well as in the creation of multidisciplinary teams for the management of this disease.

1885-5857/© 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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