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Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2018;71:477-84 - Vol. 71 Num.06 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2018.01.006

Technology Advances to Improve Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: What Clinicians Should Know

Angelo Auricchio a,b,, Ward A. Heggermont a,c

a Division of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiocentro Ticino, Lugano, Switzerland
b Center for Computational Medicine in Cardiology, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland
c Cardiovascular Research Center, OLV Hospital Aalst, Aalst, Belgium


Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Pacing. Personalized medicine. Technology.


Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a well-established treatment for symptomatic heart failure patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, prolonged QRS duration, and abnormal QRS morphology. The ultimate goals of modern CRT are to improve the proportion of patients responding to CRT and to maximize the response to CRT in patients who do respond. While the rate of CRT nonresponders has moderately but progressively decreased over the last 20 years, mostly in patients with left bundle branch block, in patients without left bundle branch block the response rate is almost unchanged. A number of technological advances have already contributed to achieve some of the objectives of modern CRT. They include novel lead design (the left ventricular quadripolar lead, and multipoint pacing), or the possibility to go beyond conventional delivery of CRT (left ventricular endocardial pacing, His bundle pacing). Furthermore, to improve CRT response, a triad of actions is paramount: reducing the burden of atrial fibrillation, reducing the number of appropriate and inappropriate interventions, and adequately predicting heart failure episodes. As in other fields of cardiology, technology and innovations for CRT delivery have been at the forefront in transforming–improving–patient care; therefore, these innovations are discussed in this review.

1885-5857/© 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved